An Investigation of Productivity Growth, Technical Progress and Efficiency Change in Nigerian Cotton Agriculture

Samuel Binuomote


This study investigates the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth in Nigerian cotton and its decomposition to efficiency change and technological progress using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. The present study uses data of 10 states over the period 1994 - 2005, calculations are based on panel data of major cotton producers in the nation collected from Nigeria Bureau of Statistics database. The data includes cotton output and four input variables comprising of land, area, labor, seed and capital. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity has experienced a negative evolution in sampled states. This poor performance of the cotton production was due to poor progress in technical efficiency and technical progress. This study also highlights the fact that technical change has been the main constraint of achievement of high levels of total factor productivity during the reference period in Nigeria. The results show that there is potential for efficiency and technical improvements in cotton production in Nigeria if there is sustained productivity growth.


Cotton, Agriculture, Productivity, Efficiency, Technology, Change

Full Text:



Adeniji, O.B. (2007): Constraints to Improved Cotton Production in Katsina State,Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences. 7:1647-1651

Adeoti, A.I. (2002) Economic analysis of irrigation and rainfed production systems in Kwara state, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan.

Ajakaiye, M.B., 1984. The economics of cotton production under the current cotton rehabilitation scheme in Funtua area. Un-published Ph.D Dissertation, Ahmadu Bello University of Zaria, Nigeria

Alam, M.K., Aboki,E., Gidado.E.H and D. D. Buba (2013): Economic Analysis of cotton production in Selected Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science. 4(1) 27-39.

Amaza P.S. (2000) Resource use efficiency in food crop production in Gombe state, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan

Caves, D.W., Christensen, L.R. and W. E. Diewert (1982): Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers, Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, 92(365), 73-86, 1982a.

Central Bank of Nigeria (2011): Gross-Domestic Product at 2010 Constant Basic Price. Central Bank of Nigeria. Annual report.

Cooper, E.I., 1990. Agriscience: Fundamentals and Application. pp 46-54, Peter Publisher Inc., Ibadan, Nigeria

Fare, R., and C. A. K. Lovell (1978): “Measuring the Technical Efficiency of Production,” Journal of Economic Theory, 19: 150–162.

FAO (2004): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Statistics (FAOSTAT Data Results).

FAOSTAT (2010): Data base

Fare, R., Grosskopf, S., Norris, M., & Zhang, Z. (1994): Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries. The American Economic Review, 84(1), 66-83. Retrieved from

Farrell, M. J. (1957). The Measurement of Productive Efficiency, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 120, 253-290. Retrieved from

Gbadegesin, J., Onyibe, E., Uyovbisere, E. and Adeosun, J.O. (2007): Cotton Production in Nigeria.A Publication of the Cotton Sector Development Programme, Cotton Development Committee.

Gusau, A.J., (1989): Problem associated with the production and marketing of cotton in Nigeria. In: Proc.First Symp. Cotton Production, 5-7th May, 1982. Held at the Institute for Agicultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Huseyn, M. (2014): Boosting Cotton production in Nigeria. People’s Daily, May, 26, p7. Retrieved on July, 11, 2014

Ijere, M.O., (1986). New Perspective in Financing Nigerian Agriculture, pp: 130–132. Fourth Dimension Publishers Enugu, Nigeria

Kalirajan, K. P. and R. T. Shand (2001): "Technology and farm performance: paths of productive efficiencies over time," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 24(3) 297-306,.

Malmquist, S. (1953): Index Numbers and Indifference Curves. Trabajos de Estatistica, 4, 209- 242.

National Bureau of Statistics (2013): Agricultural Survey Statistics. 508p

Olayide, S.O., 1986. Introduction to Agricultural Production Economics, 1st edition, pp: 96– 117. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria

Onu, J.I and Atala, T.K. (1992): An overview of the Performance of Extension Services to Cotton Farmers in the North West Cotton Producing zone. In: Proceedings of Seminar on Cotton Production and Marketing in Nigeria, P. 120, Held 10th - 11th, November,1992.

Schultz, T. W. (1964). Transforming Traditional Agriculture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Shepard, R.W. (1970) Theory of Cost and Production Function. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Udoh, E.J. (2000) Land management and resource-use efficiency among farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis in the Department of Agricultural Economics University of Ibadan

USDA (2014). United State Department of Agriculture, Nigeria Cotton Statistics. From Retrieved on June, 2014

World Bank (2003): World Development Indicators. Washington, CR. ROM. www. Stategou/r/ei/bgn/2836. Htm 2nd June, 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Biological Sciences and Research